MJOLNIR アーマー 編集
The Arbiter's ritual humiliation, ordered by the Hierarchs and carried out by Tartarus, is visually evocative of the crucifixion of Jesus. It culminates with the Tartarus stabbing the Arbiter with a brand of the Mark of Shame, similar to how Jesus was stabbed with the Lance of Longinus. His old life effectively "dead", he is then figuratively resurrected as "the Arbiter". Later he is betrayed by his own people (again) when Tartarus knocks him into the pit of the Library (as Jesus was betrayed). As Jesus then passed through Hell, the Arbiter passes through the Gravemind's lair in the pit underneath the Library. The Arbiter then returns and saves the other Elites, having learned the Truth that the Prophets are false, similar to how Christ brought a new message about religious Truth. When the Arbiter arrives in the control room of Delta Halo to stop Tartarus from activating it, Tartus exclaims "impossible!", just as it is frequently said of Christ that "with him, all things are possible".
Biblical Parallels to Plot events: Daniel編集
The passages of Daniel 11 verses 21 through 45 describe with remarkable coincidence the plot of Halo 2 and also parts of Halo 3.
21 And in his place shall arise a vile person, to whom they will not give the honor of royalty; but he shall come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue. 22 With the arms of a flood they shall be swept away from before him and be broken, and also the prince of the covenant. 23 And after the league is made with him he shall act deceitfully, for he shall come up and become strong with a small number of people.
25 “He shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the South with a great army. And the king of the South shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand, for they shall devise plans against him.
28 While returning to his land with great riches, his heart shall be moved against the holy covenant; so he shall do damage and return to his own land.
29 “At the appointed time he shall return and go toward the south; but it shall not be like the former or the latter. 30 For ships from the west shall come against him; therefore he shall be grieved, and return in rage against the holy covenant, and do damage.“So he shall return and show regard for those who forsake the holy covenant. 31 And forces shall be mustered by him, and they shall defile the sanctuary fortress; then they shall take away the daily sacrifices, and place there the abomination of desolation.
32 Those who do wickedly against the covenant he shall corrupt with flattery; but the people who know their God shall be strong, and carry out great exploits. 33 And those of the people who understand shall instruct many; yet for many days they shall fall by sword and flame, by captivity and plundering. 34 Now when they fall, they shall be aided with a little help; but many shall join with them by intrigue. 35 And some of those of understanding shall fall, to refine them, purify them, and make them white, until the time of the end; because it is still for the appointed time.
36 “Then the king shall do according to his own will: he shall exalt and magnify himself above every god, shall speak blasphemies against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the wrath has been accomplished; for what has been determined shall be done. 37 He shall regard neither the God of his fathers nor the desire of women, nor regard any god; for he shall exalt himself above them all. 38 But in their place he shall honor a god of fortresses; and a god which his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and pleasant things. 39 Thus he shall act against the strongest fortresses with a foreign god, which he shall acknowledge, and advance its glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and divide the land for gain.
40 “At the time of the end the king of the South shall attack him; and the king of the North shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter the countries, overwhelm them, and pass through. 41 He shall also enter the Glorious Land, and many countries shall be overthrown; but these shall escape from his hand: Edom, Moab, and the prominent people of Ammon. 42 He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
44 But news from the east and the north shall trouble him; therefore he shall go out with great fury to destroy and annihilate many. 45 And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the seas and the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and no one will help him.
The King described in the passage very much fits the Prophet of Truth. Contact Harvest describes his rise of power through intrigue (verse 21), and his instigation of the Covenant civil war in Halo 2 illustrates how much damage he will do to former members of the Covenant, the Elites (verse 28).
Apart from depictions of the Prophet of Truth, the verses in Daniel also point to other parts of Halo's plot; from the Covenant civil war (seen in verse 30) and also a "Prince of the Covenant" being destroyed in "the arms of the flood" (verse 22).
Verse 30 and 31 describe the pollution of the "Sanctuary Fortress", an obvious analogue for the Flood's pollution of High Charity.
Verses 40 through 45 of Daniel 11 describe with some metaphorical imagery for parts of Halo 3. The King of the north will "come against him like a whirlwind [...] with many ships". He will enter the "Glorious Holy Land", being the Ark.
The final two verses (44 and 45) of Daniel 11 seem to point to the end of the level "The Covenant" on Halo 3, as well as the end of Truth's life. Verse 44 is particularly analogous to the combined assault against the Ark's citadel, from Elites and humans, and separately the Flood. Guilty Spark by proxy of Commander Keyes says that news of the Flood will only accelerate Truth's intentions to destroy the galaxy.
In all Abrahamic religions, there are two "Arks". Firstly, there is Noah's Ark. Noah was instructed by God, who is comparable to the Forerunners in the Halo Universe, to build an Ark to save all species on earth from a Flood. Similarly, in Halo the Ark was used to save all species from the Flood. Second, there is the Ark of the Covenant. In the abrahamic religions, the Ark of the Covenant was a very holy object which housed the Ten Commandments, a symbol of God's covenant with Israel. Anyone who touched it would die instantly, just as if the Ark in Halo were activated it would also bring death. In the Halo Universe, this is mirrored by the Covenant viewing all Forerunner objects holy. Also, the Ark of the Covenant was a weapon of mass destruction in all religions of Abraham, as it decimated the outer, protective walls of Jericho. This was done by encircling the city of Jericho seven times with the Ark itself. The cataclysmical devices in Halo are composed of the Ark and seven circular celestial bodies.
The original Hebrew word for "Ark" (both the Ark of the Covenant and Noah's Ark) means "box", but, more specifically, it means "coffin", especially when in reference to the Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew:'ârôwn). Considering the Ark as a metaphorical coffin carries much weight as both the Covenant and the Gravemind meet their demise there. That fact is also poignant in that upon the discovery of the gateway to the Ark, Lord Hood expresses that he will "drive the enemy into the grave they've been so happily digging".
Additionally, a section of Genesis pertaining to the time directly after Noah's Ark runs thus: "With these words I make my covenant with you: I promise that never again will all living beings be destroyed by a flood; never again will a flood destroy the earth."
Also, another possible reference to the Ark is found in Jeremiah 3:16.
"Then it shall come to pass, when you are multiplied and increased in the land in those days," says the LORD, "that they will say no more, 'The ark of the covenant of the LORD.' It shall not come to mind, nor shall they remember it, nor shall they visit it, nor shall it be made anymore."
Perhaps this may be a reference to the Ark's final fate.
Most religious references relating to Master Chief are not quite as obvious or solid as the Covenant references, but there are still a few that seem likely. Two examples come from The Book of Revelation, formally called The Revelation of Saint John the Divine. The first is from Revelation 1:17-18 (the 1:17 is thought to be linked to Master Chief's Spartan Tag, John-117).
17 And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:
18 I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
The 'first and the last' comment may be referencing that the Master Chief was the first Spartan to be studied by Dr. Halsey. This coupled with the fact that the game manuals continuously refer to the Master Chief as the last Spartan (as all other SPARTAN-IIs were killed or taken out of action), makes him the first and the last.
The comment 'I am he that liveth and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore' may refer to Master Chief being one of the 33 Spartans that survived the SPARTAN II project. Also 'and have the keys of hell and of death' most likely refers to the Indices to the Halos destructive power. It could also be a reference to Captain Keyes neural implants used to destroy the Pillar of Autumn, and Installation 04, in the first game although this is less likely. Another important thing to note is the fact that the passage states that "I am alive for evermore". In the novels it is often said that a Spartan never dies and during the novels and games Master Chief repeatedly survives many near-death situations. It has also been speculated that 'And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:' could refer to the end cutscene of the first level of Halo: Combat Evolved. In this scene, the Master Chief puts his right hand on a Marine that is at his feet, and saving him by putting him in the lifeboat.
The next quote is from Revelation 11:7, another reference to John 117. This verse was also part of the battle of High Charity reference, showing it may have some importance to Bungie and the Halo story.
7 And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them.
Prior to the release of Halo 3, we witnessed TV spots in which towards the end would display the word "BELIEVE". This next one, read from St. John 1:7 references to the Master Chief inspiring hope in those around him in the fight for humanity:
7 The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him might believe.
1 John 1:7 fits the name better, and goes like this:
7 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.
However, 1 John 2:17 fits the story better:
17 And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever.
17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. —John 1:17
This is less likely to be a reference:
7 Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judaea again. —John 11:7
Additionally, his name is itself a reference to religion, being derived from Johannes, which was the Latin form of Ioannes, itself derived from the Hebrew Yochanan, meaning "Yahweh is gracious." Yahweh is the Hebrew name for God.
Probably the most obvious biblical connection to Master Chief is that John I became the seventh bishop of Jerusalem in 117 A.D.
When looking at the Halo storyline very direct parallels can be drawn between Master Chief and Jesus. The concept that the Chief is seen as a savior and the one man who can vanquish evil (the Flood and the Covenant) is reflective of this.
The reference could relate to the Ark, because the Ark of the Covenant contained the laws given to Moses by God, and be a parallel between Jesus Christ and Master Chief.
17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. —John 1:17
More evidence of this occurs at the end of Halo 3. When Master Chief is listed MIA, he disappears from humanity, much like how Jesus died on the cross. The line "Wake me when you need me." is also another reference to Jesus in that he will return someday, most likely when humanity is suffering again. After Chief had separated, during the ending video on legendary, Chief and Cortana say to each other "It's finished" which seems to refer to John 19:30
"30 When Jesus therefore had received the wine, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost (or Holy Spirit)."
His cryotube may be compared to the tomb in which Christ was buried.
Many Covenant ships and vehicles contain religious references. "Ghost" for example may refer to the Holy Ghost. Seraph fighters may also be a reference to the creatures described to inhabit the House of God. The Spirit may be like the Holy Spirit, a part of the Trinity of God. Also the names of many of their ships contain references to religious concepts or ideals (e.g. Truth and Reconciliation).
The Transmissions placed on Bungie's website before the release of Halo: Combat Evolved made several references to biblical lines or concepts. For example Cortana states that "He says I came not to send Peace but a Sword ..." which is a reference to Jesus's famous statement in Matthew 10:34: the line "Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword" . This reinforces the comparison of John and biblical figures such as Jesus.
Interestingly, the Spartan Laser's full name contains a biblical reference. In the name W/AV Model 6 Galilean/Grindell Nonlinear Rifle, the word Galilean might not in fact refer to Galileo, but to Galilee, the region where Jesus lived for thirty years in what is now Israel.
There are many references in the Bible and the Qu'ran about false prophets, such as 2 Peter 2:1
"But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction."
This can be related to the Hierarchs of the Covenant, for they knowingly deceived their followers into believing that Humans were evil, despite the fact that Humans were actually the Forerunner's Reclaimers. They did this to keep their religion from falling apart, even though according to their doctrines it would technically be heresy to kill them.
As is known, there are many references to the number "7" in the game. However, something that is not as widely known is that "7" is the number of perfection in the Bible(not to mention godly perfection (the reverse if 666 is 777 for ultimate luck, which links back to John's luck) and the luckiest number believed in the world). John's gospel, for example, is made up partly of the "Book of Signs," which contains seven miracle stories and seven discourses. In the Roman Catholic Bible, and every other Christian and Jewish bible, the story of Genesis is told, where the Lord's Holy day is the seventh day, Sunday( or Saturday to some). In the New American Bible, Mark 8:1-10 contains the story of the Feeding of the Five Thousand. In the story, Jesus starts out seven loaves. In Leviticus, there are many rituals in which the same thing is done seven times. In Joshua, in the story of the fall of Jericho, the Lord tells Joshua to "Have seven priests carry trumpets of rams' horns in front of the ark. On the seventh day, march around the city seven times..." In Kings, there are other examples, including Elijah saying "Go back" seven times, a boy sneezing seven times, and Elisha telling a leper to go bathe in the Jordan seven times so that he may be healed. In Psalms, the Word of God is described as "silver...refined seven times," and another Psalm says "...seven times a day I praise you..." In the Book of Daniel, when Daniel's friend is about to be put in a furnace, the furnace is heated to seven times its normal heat. In Matthew, Jesus tells Peter to forgive "seven times seventy" times. The date 7/7/7 is said to be a holy day. This date unlocks a secret in Halo 2 and is also Bungie Day. Also in Daniel:13 an Angel appears before him and tells him that he has waited for 21 days; 7 times 3. 3 is also a very prominent number in the Holy Bible. There are also 7 Archangels who surround God in Heaven.
Isaiah 35:1-10 is full of material which forms direct parallels to the events on the Tsavo Highway in Halo 3. Specifically verses 4-10 which read,
"4 say to those with fearful hearts; Be strong, do not fear; your God will come, he will come with vengeance; with divine retribution he will come to save you;
5 Then will the eyes of the blind be opened and the ears of the deaf unstopped.
6 Then will the lames leap like a deer, and the mute tongue shout for joy. Water will gush forth in the wilderness and streams in the desert.
7 The burning sand will become a pool, the thirsty ground bubbling springs. In the haunts where jackals once lay, grass and reeds and papyrus will grow.
8 And a highway will be there; it will be called the Way of Holiness. The unclean will not journey on it; it will be for those who walk in that Way; wicked fools will not go about on it.
9 No lion will be there, nor will any ferocious beast get up on it; they will not be found there. But only the redeemed will walk there,
10 and the ransomed of the Lord will return. They will enter Zion with singing; everlasting joy will crown their heads. Gladness and joy will overtake them, and sorrow and sighing will flee away."
The Covenant and the Church編集
This is not found in the Bible at all, but is what is commonly assumed to have happened during the Spanish Inquisition. It is often stated that the Church tortured and executed heretics in an attempt to force Christianity on Jews and non-Christians. This would be similar to how the Covenant tortured the Arbiter, and probably did worse to "silence" heretics that came before him.
The Crusades and the holy war against humanity編集
Covenant = Christianity編集
A parallel can be drawn between the Crusades and the Covenant's war against humanity. Both of the 'wars' killed people so that their respective religions would continue to live on. The three hierarchs realised that the humans were proof that their religion was wrong, and if the information would become public knowledge, the entire Covenant would possibly collapse, since it is based on belief of the Forerunners and their great journey. Similarly, fighters for the Church killed Muslims and Jews because they believed they were becoming a threat against Christianity. Islam was getting more followers, and expanding rapidly.
In a nutshell, the Halo story could be told in this way:
God = Precursors
Jews; Jesus, Noah, etc. = Forerunners
Christians = The Covenant
Muslims = Humanity
The Covenant-Human war parallels the Crusades, with the Covenant (Christians) trying to re-take Forerunner relics from the humans.
Islam = Covenant 編集
Bearing that the Holy Land (Jerusalem) previously belonged to the Jews prior to being seized by Islam, as well as taking into account the links between Judaism and Christianity, a possible parallel would be:
God = Precursors
Jews = Forerunners
Christianity = Humanity
Islam = Covenant
Jerusalem would therefore represent a Forerunner (Jewish) artifact that was seized by the Covenant (Islam). This however, can be disputed by the fact the Crusaders showed no mercy toward the residents of the city when they first claimed it and destroying all sacred Muslim relics and mosques, which in parallel is not the case with the Humans, who are the victims of invading religious zealots and not the attackers themselves. When Saladin reclaimed Jerusalem from the invading Christians (Covenant) he spared all lives, and was very respectful against Christian relics and symbols, making it illegal to desecrate Christian relics.
The Great Flood編集
Bearing in mind that the Forerunners were all but destroyed by the Flood (released and allowed to gain a foothold due to the Forerunners mistakes), leaving behind only a few descendants (Humans), a strong parallell presents itself between the Biblical flood and the Flood of Halo, which is likely the one Bungie were trying to portray. This would therefore go:
Precursors = God
Forerunners = Antedilvuian humanity
Humanity = Post-flood Humanity
Covenant = Demonic entities
This would then have the Covenent (Demons) intent on preventing humanity from claiming the rightful inheritence of the Forerunners, which is near exactly what the Bible protrays.
The Flood and Truth 編集
Flood = Demons
High Charity = Babylon
Hive = Babylon fallen, dwelling place of demons
This is clearly a reference to Revelation 18:1-2:
1 After these things I saw another angel coming down from heaven, having great authority, and the earth was illuminated with his glory.
2 And he cried mightily with a loud voice, saying, "Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and has become a dwelling place of demons, a prison for every foul spirit, and a cage for every unclean and hated bird!
High Charity is synonymous with Babylon (symbolically Ancient Rome).
The hive is the house of the Gravemind, which is synonymous with the dwelling place of demons.
Truth = Satan
Arbiter = Jesus
A possible reference to Truth can be found in Revelation 2:12-13:
12 "And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write, 'These things says He who has the sharp two-edged sword:
13 "I know your works, and where you dwell, where Satan’s throne is. And you hold fast to My name, and did not deny My faith even in the days in which Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells.
Pergamos, which means "Citadel" in Greek, is synonymous with Satan's throne.
Another reference can be found in Isaiah 27:1:
1 In that day the LORD with His severe sword, great and strong, will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, Leviathan that twisted serpent; and He will slay the reptile that is in the sea.
This could be a reference to the Arbiter killing Truth.
Arbiter = Michael
Elites = his angels
Truth = Satan
Brutes = his angels
High Charity = heaven
Covenant Civil War = war in heaven
The reference is in Revelation 12:7-9:
7 And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels fought with the dragon; and the dragon and his angels fought,
8 but they did not prevail, nor was a place found for them in heaven any longer.
9 So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
The songs Behold A Pale Horse and On a Pale Horse could be relating to Revelation 6:8, how the English translation reads: "And behold, a pale horse, and he who sat on it, his name was Death, and Hell followed with him. Authority over one fourth of the earth, to kill with the sword, with famine, with death, and by the wild animals of the earth was given to him.", referring to the end of the world. Under the dictionary definition, Behold A Pale Horse simply testifies as "death" in the written text.
Genesis, a new graphic novel explaining what happened before Halo Wars, is more than likely named after the Book of Genesis, the first part of the Old Testament and the Bible. Genesis means "origin", appropriately named.
G 617 g編集
G 617 g was the Forerunner designation for a planet in the G617 system situated within the near border region of the galactic Halo, which was the first world in the Milky Way to be infected by Flood. The name of the planet is a reference to Genesis 6:17, which states: And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die.
At the end of Floodgate (Level), The Gravemind will speak through Master Chief's visor. The first thing the Gravemind says is "Do not be afraid, I am peace, I am salvation". In the Bible and the Qur'an, whenever an Angel appears to a human, he always starts off by saying "Do not be afraid".
The monitor could be a possible reference to the guardian of the sacred garden of Eden, which after Adam and Eve left the angel was given the task by God to guard the garden against intruders. Or the Monitor could be a reference to the watchers in Daniel 4:13, 17. Watchers were angels on special appointment; they were constantly on watch as sentinels for God.
- List of "Seven" References in Halo
- List of Marathon References in Halo
- List of Norse Mythology References in Halo
- List of Greek Mythology References in Halo